MURAD Skin Care Regimen



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MURAD Skin Care Regimen

MURAD Skin Care Regimen

Murad Skin Care - About Murad Products

Murad are scientifically formulated to deliver the most dramatic results.Murad's formulas contains Alpha and Beta Hydroxy Acids, antioxidant like Vitamin A,C, and E, anti-irritants, liposomes, ceramides, and specific ingredients to address multiple skin concerns, including acne prone skin, dry skin, skin discoloration, and photo damage.

The Murad Skincare Regimen - when used together, Murad Skincare products will give you dramatic results in just a few weeks. By using the appropriate products for your individual skin type and incorporating the following steps, you will see your skin improve dramatically. Cleanse, Tone, Treat, Moisturize and Protect.

A visionary and world authority on skin health, Dr. Howard Murad is a dermatologist, pharmacist, and Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology at UCLA. He combined conventional wisdom, decades of medical and pharmaceutical experience, extensive research, and an unwavering commitment to quality when he founded Murad Inc. in 1989. Dr. Murad's inclusive approach to skincare has helped to revolutionize the world of beauty and has led to many breakthroughs in both external and internal skincare. From his patented internal supplements for reducing wrinkles and acne, to Vitamin C infusion and a patented line of anti-aging sun care, the Murad product line consistently offers proven results! "I have devoted my life to making healthy skin attainable for everyone" says Dr. Murad. "I believe that beautiful skin is a reflection of total wellness both inside and out."

Murad Skin Care Products Guide

Murad Skin Care Regimens

The Murad Skincare Regimen: When used together. Murad Skincare products will give you dramatic results in just a few weeks. By using the appropriate products for your individual skin type and incorporating the following steps, you will see your skin improve dramatically.

  • Cleanse - Rinse away surface impurities with Murad Cleanser
  • Tone - Soothe, balance, and complete the cleansing process by preparing skin for further treatment with Murad Toner
  • Treat - Treat specific skincare concerns, visibly improve the skin quality, and diminish the visible signs of aging with a Murad Treatment
  • Moisturize - Hydrate and soften skin with Murad Moisturizer
  • Protect - Protect from environmental damage with Murad Sunscreen or Sunblock

Murad Cleansers

Murad Toners

Murad Treatments

Murad Moisturizers

Murad Protectors

Murad Skin Care Resurgence

As a dermatologist, I frequently see patients concerned about maturing skin and the unwanted symptoms associated with the aging process. These include dry and thinning skin, wrinkles, unwanted facial hair, and acne breakouts, as well as irritability and insomnia.

After careful evaluation of these patients, I discovered that there are three key components that affect the skin's aging process in women and contribute to its unwelcome symptoms

  1. Intrinsic aging - Caused by the genetic determined aging process.
  2. Environmental aging - Due to factors such as photodamage from the sun, pollution, stress, alcohol, and poor diet.
  3. Hormonal aging - Due to intrinsic aging specifically associated with the decrease in estrogen levels during peri-menopause and menopause

My inclusive health philosophy has led me to develop Murad Resurgence, the first comprehensive skincare regimen targeted to specific needs of the peri-menopause and menopause women. Murad Resurgence topical products feature a combination of plant-derived phytoestrogens, hair growth inhibitors, and antioxidants, plus firming and conditioning agents to restore vibrancy and clarity to dull, lackluster skin while helping it stay healthy and balanced.

In keeping with the Murad inside outside approach to skin health, I have also created the Murad Resurgence Calming Nighttime Supplement. This exclusive blend contains ingredients designed to boost collagen production, ease joint pain, alleviate insomnia, and promote overall health and well-being.

Along with a nutritious diet, exercise, and positive outlook, Murad Resurgence will calm age related concerns while helping to maintain healthy balance.

Cleanse | Tone
Murad Resurgence Renewing Cleansing Cream - Lather for luster. This pearlized cleansing cream contains apricot oil to enhance hydration. Papaya gently exfoliates to bring on brightness.

Treat | Repair
Murad Resurgence Age-Diffusing Serum - Concentrate on toning and firming. This silky serum with soy, wild yam and collagen protectors, inhibits collagen breakdown and increases elaticity to reduce the appearance wrinkles and sagging. Naturally calms redness for the smooth even tone of healthy balanced skin.

Calming Nighttime Supplement
Solve problems in your sleep. Melatonin calms and reduces irritability while helping to minimize insomnia. B-complex vitamins and glucosamine promote overall health, and boost collagen production and ease joint pain so you can rest easy.

Hydrate | Protect
Murad Resurgence Sheer Lustre Day Moisture SPF15

Bring on the radiance. Avocado oils and clove hydrate to minimize fine lines and wrinkles. Soy and wild am increase elasticity and firm the skin. Luminescent minerals give dull skin a natural, healthy-looking glow even without makeup.

Murad Resurgence Renewing Eye Cream

Murad Resurgence Age-Balancing Night Cream Balance by night. This rich cream contains chaparral extract, clinically proven to slow unwanted facial hair growth by 22% in 12 weeks. Soy and wild yam Increase elasticity and firm the skin. A complex of omega-3 oils, shea butter and conditioners super hydrate and retexturize to restore skin's balance and vibrance.

Murad Resurgence Renewal Home Facial Kit

Murad Resurgence Products

Murad Resurgence offers naturally-base formula to gently ease the symptoms of menopause before, during and after the transition. Murad Resurgence maintain a healthy balance while restoring hydration and vibrancy to the skin.

As a dermatologist, I frequently see patients concerned about maturing skin and the unwanted symptoms associated with the aging process. These include dry and thinning skin, wrinkles, unwanted facial hair, and acne breakouts, as well as irritability and insomnia.

After careful evaluation of these patients, I discovered that there are key components that affect the skin's aging process in women and contribute to its unwelcome symptoms.

1. Intrinsic Aging. Caused by the genetically determined aging process

2. Environmental Aging. Due to factors such as photodamage from the sun, pollution, stress, alcohol, and poor diet.

3. Hormonal Aging. A factor of intrinsic aging specifically associated with the decrease in estrogen levels during pre-menopause and menopause.

My inclusive health philosophy has led me to develop Murad Resurgence, the first comprehensive skincare regimen targeted to the specific needs of the pre-menopausal and menopausal woman. Murad Resurgence topical products feature a combination of plant-derived phytoestrogens, hair growth inhibitors, and antioxidants, plus firming and conditioning agents to restore vibrancy and clarity to dull, lackluster skin while helping it stay healthy and balanced.

In keeping with Murad inside outside approach to skin health, I have also created the Murad Resurgence Calming Nighttime Supplement. This exclusive blend contains ingredients designed to boost collagen production, ease joint pain, alleviate insomnia, and promote overall health and well-being.

Along with nutritious diet, exercise and positive outlook, Murad Resurgence will calm age related concerns while helping you maintain a healthy balance.

Howard Murad

Recommended Murad Resurgence Products

Murad Environmental Shield Products

Murad Environmental Shield and patented Skin Repair System with Co-3 promote skin health by repairing, treating and preventing the aging effects of environmental exposure.

Murad Essential-C Daily Cleanser

Cleanses and purifies environmentally damaged skin by washing away environmental impurities while restoring moisture to dehydrated skin.

Murad Essential-C Toner

Restores balance and protects damaged skin by replenishing moisture while restoring suppleness.

Murad Essential-C Daily Renewal Complex

Scientifically proven, patented vitamin C innovation restores environmentally aging skin by reducing fine lines by 17% after one application and improving signs of photoaging by 46% in just four weeks.

Murad Daily Renewal Complex Antioxidant Supplement

Patented, super antioxidant formula acts as a protective umbrella to combat environmental damage from the inside while enhancing topical SPF power by up to 10% on the outside.

Murad Essential-C Eye Cream SPF 15

Protects and hydrates overstressed eye area by smoothing lines and increasing elasticity while protecting skin from aging UVA/UVB rays.

Murad Essential-C Day Moisture SPF 30

Shields and prevents against environmental exposure by improving hydration, clarity and elasticity. Delivers powerful protection from sun and free-radicals

Murad Essential-C Night Moisture

Overnight repair formula restores skin by rebuilding collagen and rehydrating skin. Neutralizes damaging daily toxins.

Murad Essential-C Daily Renewal Complex

Repairs damage from UV rays, toxins and pollutants while also preventing against future damage.

Recommended Murad Environmental Shield Essential-C Products

Murad Redness Therapy Products

Online Brochure

Murad Redness Therapy is the most effective skincare regimen created to address Rosacea-like symptoms and concerns. Murad Patented productsare specifically formulated to help reduce redness, skin irritation, stinging, sensitivity, and dryness that are especially debilitating to Rosacea-like skin.

Over the past few years I have noticed an influx of patients coming to see me with their main concern being excessive skin redness. In consulting with these patients, I realized that the redness they were experiencing was also accompanied by sensitivity, flushing, heat, and overall tightness.

There are a number of factors that influence this Rosacea-like redness on the skin. These include genetics, spicy foods, alcohol consumption, dryness, sun and wind exposure, and stress, to name a few. As I helped my patients identify their symptoms and related causes, I resolved to develop a therapeutic regimen to address their needs.

The Redness Therapy line is a comprehensive skincare regimen designed to address Rosacea-like redness and associated concerns, These patented products are specifically formulated to help reduce the redness, skin irritation, stinging, sensitivity, and dryness that are especially debilitating to fragile skin.

To further enhance the benefits of this at home regimen, I have also developed a professional facial treatment.
Using both will provide a greater reduction in redness and sensitivity, while improving overall skin health.

As with every Murad regimen, I recommend a three-tier approach to healthy skin, consisting of:

. Topical Products - to cleanse, treat, and hydrate

. Internal Supplements-to rejuvenate skin from the inside out

. Inclusive Health'" - to nurture ones emotional well-being

Nurture yourself inside and out. Your body will thank you for it.

Howard Murad

Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology at UCLA

Murad Redness Therapy Products

Murad Age Reform with Durian

Murad Age Reform from Murad's most comprehensive treatments to reverse the signs of genetic aging. Reveal youner, smoother, firmer, more beautiful skin beginning with the frist application. Murad has formulated two treatments for genetic aging. Murad Intensive Wrinkle Reducer for Eyes and Murad Intensive Wrinkle Reducer

Durian Cell Reform:

In the final analysis, the process of skin aging is affected by providing the optimal environment for cell membranes and connective tissue protection
and repair. Durian Cell Reform embodies The Cellular Water Principle and provides this needed support.

Water Homeostasis Complex: Polygalacturonic Acid and Trehalose

The Durian plant has evolved throughout the millennia to perfect its ability to maintain homeostasis. Its unique molecular makeup is optimized to prevent over-absorption of water into its cells during monsoon seasons, while at the same time maximizing sparse water to survive droughts.
The husk of Durian is rich in mucopolysaccharide-like molecules - primarily polygalacturonic acid. With other hexose sugars in the husk, polygalacturonic acid forms a high molecular-weight structural barrier for maintaining water balance. These structures protect the Durian plant from excessive water uptake, particularly during the rainy seasons characteristic of the plant's indigenous regions.

In humans, galacturonic acid and the other hexose sugars in Durian form the building blocks of glycosaminoglycans, our hydration system. Trehalose, a disaccharide found in the arillus, or pulp, of Durian, is a sugar associated with so-called "resurrection" plants native to arid regions with drought-like conditions. Disaccharides promote the ability of these plants to
optimize the limited water available within their cells to maintain function while other plants die of dehydration. Once a rainy season returns, these plants seem to
resurrect or come back to life.

Among the physiological properties of trehalose is the ability to protect cells from damage caused by dehydration, especially prevalent during dry periods. This is
accomplished by enveloping the cells within a supple, gel matrix, in contrast to other sugars which can envelop cells within jagged crystalline structures.

In Durian, a unique saccharide complex including trehalose acts synergistically to optimize cellular water homeostasis during seasonal extremes. Durian Cell Reform was formulated with this same core complex of ingredients to give our tissues and cells a similar ability to self-regulate cellular water balance by maintaining equilibrium between water uptake and water loss, a function that is typically compromised with age.

Cellular Membrane Protection:
Polyphenols, Sulfur-Containing Compounds, Vitamins and Minerals The Durian plant contains an abundance of flavonoid antioxidants as well as numerous compounds containing a chemical element that is essential to cell membrane health - sulfur. Sulfur donors are critical to protect the cell membrane and provide vital nutrients used by the body to produce free radical fighting antioxidants. Over 100 sulfur-containing ingredients have been identified in Durian. These components act with minerals (Copper, Manganese and Potassium) and vitamins (Vitamin C, Niacin and Vitamin 8-6) found in the Durian plant to bolster cell membrane integrity, provide protection from free radicals and other environmental stressors and aid in maintaining cellular water balance.

Product containing Durian Cell Reform:

Murad Pore Reform Products

Murad Pore Reform provides complete care to address blackheads and large pores. Murad Pore Reform skin care products treat clogged pores and blackheads by extracting existing clogs and preventing future blackheads. This powerful exfoliating formula features micro-polishing beads that work to relieve clogged pores and blackheads while smoothing and softening.

Murad Pore Reform Line contains four products formulated to help reduce the size of the pores and protect them against impurities, bust blackheads, and regulate oil production.


Murad Pore Reform Daily Cleansing Foam - 5.1 oz
This dual-action foaming cleanser washes away dirt, oil and pore-clogging impurities. This formula tones and tightens pores without drying out skin.


Murad Pore Reform T-Zone Pore Refining Serum - 2 oz
This targeted serum lifts away dull, dry skin cells to even skin texture and tone and dissolves surface skin-clogging impurities to refine pores. T-Zone Pore Refining Serum is a Step 2 treatment product that normalizes oil production and keeps pores clear to maintain healthy, glowing skin.

Murad Pore Reform Blackhead and Pore Clearing Duo - 2 pcs
This fast-acting two step treatment, consisting of Blackhead Remover and Pore Refining Sealer, helps reduce blackheads and provides pores with lasting protection against impurities. Blackhead & Pore Clearing Duo extracts stubborn debris from deep within the pores and is clinically proven to reduce the formation of blackheads by an average of 58%* (individual results may vary).


Murad Pore Reform Balancing Moisturizer Broad Spectrum SPF 15 | PA++ - 1.7 oz
This lightweight moisturizer helps control oil production while delivering powerful antioxidant protection to defend against skin-damaging UVA/UVB rays. Formulated specifically to help minimize the appearance of large pores, this moisturizer helps prevent unwanted shine and blackheads.Additionally, this formula features MuraSol™ Antioxidant Defense, a proprietary blend of powerful encapsulated antioxidants that penetrate the skin’s top layers and creates a protective barrier of free radical neutralizers to halt the cascade of UV-induced damage and premature aging before it begins.

Recommended Murad Pore Reform Products

Murad Skin Care FAQs about Glycolic Acid


A great deal has been written recently about Alpha Hydroxy Acids. Over the past few years, research on these substances has been conducted at major universities and medical research laboratories. Dermatologists and Aestheticians all over the country have used glycolic acid, a particularly adaptable Alpha Hydroxy Acid, with dramatic results.

As a manufacturer of cosmetic products, some of which contain glycolic acid, we are aware of many questions being asked by consumers concerning this exciting new cosmetic alternative. We have tried to answer these questions as clearly and completely as possible. If you have any further questions or comments, please write to us and let us know. It is our intention to maintain an open channel of communication with our customers and we are extremely interested in your thoughts and concerns.

The following are answers to questions frequently asked about Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) and Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care.

1. What are Alpha Hydroxy Acids?
AHAs are naturally occurring substances found in various fruits, sugar cane and sour milk, as well as in the body. These substances have a beneficial effect on the skin. Glycolic acid, the AHA found in sugar cane, has the smallest molecule and is considered by many researchers to be the most adaptable for cosmetic purposes.

The experience of dermatologists and aestheticians has shown that continued use of glycolic acid formulations improves the appearance of skin, helps manage oily and acne prone skin problems and reduces discolorations in the skin.

2. Who discovered AHAs and how do they work?
Throughout history, women applied old wine and sour milk to their skin to improve its look and feel. Recently, scientists have begun to look into AHAs to find out how they work and why they help the skin. A great deal of research has been done all over the country, in both private dermatology practices and laboratories, with encouraging results. Clinical experience and research with glycolic acid formulations at major universities have also demonstrated the significant benefits of this new skin care discovery. .

Glycolic acid works by loosening the bond that holds together the top layers of dead skin cells. By helping the body remove the excess build-up of these dead cells on the surface of the skin, glycolic acid allows fresher, healthierlooking skin to emerge.

3. How does glycolic acid help with oily/acne prone skin?
As dead skin cells build up around hair follicles, they interfere with the natural drainage of oil, causing the hair follicle to clog and fill. The resulting blockage can lead to several problems, including comedones, etc. By loosening the bond holding together the excessive build-up of dead cells, glycolic acid helps remove the blockage and cleanses the pores, allowing the skin to rid itself of these oils naturally.

4. How does glycolic acid help with skin discolorations such as age spots?
Previously, one of the problems with age spot removal products was that the lightening agent, typically hydroquinone, could not get past the thick outer layer of dead cells to reach the melanocytes, the source of the pigmentation. When hydroquinone is combined with glycolic acid, as in Murad Age Spot and Pigment Lightening Gel, glycolic acid removes the excess buildup of dead cells on the surface and hydroquinone reduces the production of melanin, allowing pigmentation to diminish gradually.

5. Are AHA products like Retin-A?
A clinical comparison has not been performed, but these substances are very different chemically. What's more, Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care contain only ingredients that are suitable for cosmetic use, while Retin-A is a drug that requires a doctor's prescription.

6. Do AHAs make the skin sensitive to the sun?
AHAs used in cosmetic formulations do not cause photosensitivity, however you should always wear daily sun protection.

7. Are there any complications with the use of Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care?
The professional exfoliation product may produce a tingling sensation when first applied, but that usually disappears in a minute or two, although the time may vary depending on the individual's skin. Some people experience a slight reddening after the exfoliation, particularly if the skin is extra sensitive, but most people experience only smoother and softer skin. Reddening and tingling of the skin may also occur with Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment Products, but typically lasts only a minute or two.

Initial use of Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment Products may cause an apparent increase in breakout. This occurs because the product is actively cleansing the pores and, therefore, accelerating the process of bringing trapped oil and debris to the surface. This should clear up within a few weeks, after which regular use of the product will keep the pores clear and acne breakouts should be markedly reduced.

In order to ensure the highest degree of purity, all Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products are developed, formulated and produced to the strictest standards. Every Murad product is also dermatologist tested, hypoallergenic, non-acnegenic and not tested on animals. Nonetheless, a small percentage of the population may be ultra sensitive to an AHAs or one of the other ingredients in some of the Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products, particularly hydroquinone. These people may experience a burning sensation or a sensitivity to one of the ingredients after application. In case of sensitivity to any AHA skin care product, consumers should discontinue use of the product immediately and call their skin care professional or a physician if the symptoms persist.

8. How should Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment products be used?
All Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products should be used twice daily, once in the morning and at night. The skin should always be cleansed thoroughly before the product is applied. Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment products do not replace other skin care products such as cleansers and moisturizers. They are formulated to be used in conjunction with the regular skin care regimen the individual consumer may have developed with the help of his/her aesthetician or other skin care professional. Make-up may also be applied over glycolic acid skin care products. .

Application of Murad AHA Rapid Exfoliato_ or AHA Rapid Exfoliato_ System II in a series of six treatments - no less than once per week and no more than three times per week. Because each person's skin is different, thereafter the frequency should be determined by the skin care professional who will be providing the service. Murad AHA Rapid Exfoliations may be repeated indefinitely at the discretion of the skin care professional and the consumer until the desired results are obtained.

9. What are the long term effects of continual use of AHA products?
Since AHAs are non-toxic substances found in natural sources such as fruit, sugar cane and sour milk, as well as in the body, researchers do not expect any problems as a result of long term use of AHA products.

10. Can I make my own AHA solution from fruit juice or milk?
No. AHA substances are not easily extracted and must be used in properly balanced formulations to achieve worthwhile results.

11. What happens when use of an AHA product is stopped or suspended?
Unlike the case with simple moisturizers, the improvement in appearance that users of Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment products achieve will not immediately disappear once usage stops, and residual effects may last indefinitely. However, in the absence of AHAs, dry and rough dead skin cells can once again build up on the outer layer of the skin and the original problem may reoccur. With uninterrupted use, the benefits can be maintained.

12. Can both men and women and people of all ages use Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care?
Men and women of all ages should experience beneficial results with Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products. In addition to addressing such common skin conditions as the appearance of skin, acne prone skin and discolorations, glycolic acid's exfoliating benefits can also help make shaving easier.

Care should be taken however, when using any skin care product, including Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products, on very young children and people with ultra-sensitive skin.

13. What percentage of glycolic acid should I look for when purchasing a product?
After years of testing glycolic acid formulations on thousands of test subjects, researchers have concluded that the optimum glycolic acid percentage for a cosmetic formulation is within a range of five to twelve percent, with a pH that conforms' as close to normal surface skin pH 4.2 - 5.6.
We also firmly believe, however, that the optimum performance of a glycolic acid product depends on a number of other factors equally important to glycolic acid percentages - including pH adjustment, vehicle and de-sensitizing agents. The whole formula must be carefully and thoroughly balanced to ensure the best blend of ingredients. The researcher must constantly test and re-test; evaluating the data that comes from use with thousands of test subjects in order to establish safe "use" and create the optimum formulation.

14. How does a chemical peel differ from exfoliation?
"Chemobrasion," the scientific term for a chemical peel, involves applying a variety of specific corrosive chemicals to the skin that may leave it looking and feeling like a second degree sun burn. Substances such as 50-70% glycolic acid, 20-50% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 88% phenol are used to chemically peel - or "wound" - multiple layers of the epidermis and dermis thereby remodeling the skin. This type of procedure - called invasive, since it reaches beyond the stratum corneum into the living epidermis and the dermis - should only be administered by a qualified dermatologist or plastic surgepn due to the potentipl complications involved with the procedure.

When applied properly by a physician, chemical peels have proven beneficial in diminishing freckles, blotchiness, age spots, fine and deep lines, actinic keratoses, melasma and other cutaneous disorders.

Many similar cosmetic benefits of chemical peels can be obtained through in-salon exfoliation services- ranging from salt sloughs and body scrubs to AHA exfoliation treatments and glycolic acid home care products, - which utilize glycolic acid but in much lower percentages and higher pH. These procedures are non-invasive and they are limited to the removal of dead skin cells. Therefore, they are considered cosmetic.

While a physician might recommend a 50% to 70% concentration in superficial chemical peel treatments designed to remove living tissue, aestheticians use 10% to 30% concentrations at an adjusted pH (partially neutralized) in their face and body care services to remove only the top layer of dead skin cells (stratum corneum).

15. Can glycolic acid be used during pregnancy?
Every woman should always check with her obstetrician. However, Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care Treatment products are cosmetic preparations and therefore do not appear to influence the body systemically. AHAs such as glycolic and lactic acids occur naturally in our body.

16. What are the latest innovations concerning glycolic acid?
Synergistic formulas are the future of glycolic acid skin care. These formulations not only provide the already known exfoliating benefits of glycolic acid, but condition and supplement the skin with specialized ingredients that improve hydration for dry skin, manage and reduce acne breakouts, enhance clarity for oily complexions and prevent envorinmental skin damage.

17. How do you process glycolic acid from sugar cane?
The principle source of glycolic acid is synthetic. It is available in various grades and concentrations from several reagent and chemical companies. Naturally derived AHAs are also available for cosmetic use. Multi fruit acids are a concentrated form of several fruit and plant extracts specifically bilberry, sugar cane, orange and lemon. However, since total acid concentration (30-50%) is lower than its synthetic counterpart, many companies use synthetically produced AHAs as the actual acid in varying concentrations is available.

18. How can glycolic acid be so versatile for so many different skin types and problems?

AHAs, including glycolic acid, are a special group of organic acids found to diminish corneocyte cohesion (reduce surface dead skin cells). Due to this unique mechanism of action, they have been found to be beneficial for the management of conditions involving hyperkeratinization i.e., psoriasis, ichthyosis, acne, dry skin, etc.

19. Just how deep will glycolic acid go?
Glycolic acid penetration depends on several factors including, but not limited to, acid concentration (percentage), pH (acid activity) vehicle (delivery system), pre-existing condition of skin, etc. Multiple applications of a 70% pH 0.5 glycolic acid solution with variable exposure times (30 seconds to 5 minutes) can wound the skin progressively eventually effecting dermal tissue. This procedure would represent a "superficial or light chemical peel" and should only be administered by a qualified physician due to the possible complications involved that a lay person may not be trained to rectify. Conversely, a 10% pH 4.0 lotion would elicit "cosmetic benefits" (exfoliation) due to lower acid concentration and activity (lower percentage> higher pH).

20. Isn't there a danger of "over-exfoliating" the skin, don't we eventually run out of new skin cells to slough off?
A normal functioning epidermis naturally turns itself over usually on a monthly cycle. This also varies from individual to individual due to a variety of factors including genetic pre-disposition, environmental factors, age, drug therapy, etc. This process of epidermal cell turnover is a continuous process. Removal of hyperkeratotic skin (overly thickened stratum corneum) would not deplete the epidermis of its natural ability to renew and replace skin cells.

21. How long have these products been tested and on animals or human volunteers?

Murad Advanced Performance Skin Care products have been used by over 500,000 people in a six year period, however, we do not test on animals.

22. Speaking psychologically, doesn't the word "acid" scare a lot of people?
Basically, acids come in two forms, liquids and solids. They comprise different forms and characteristics that are not always associated with corrosiveness which is a common misconception. Examples of other acids include citric acid found in citrus fruit, acetic acid in 4-6% concentrations commonly found in household vinegar, the acid mantle of the skin' (pH 4.2 - 5.6) is a protective barrier consisting of lactic acid and sodium lactate and finally "amino acids" are the building blocks of protein. Approximately 83% of the skin is composed of different types of protein (keratin, collagen, elastin). .

23. Inevitably high-concentration glycolic acid products will start to appear over-the-counter. Should one be wary of these?
Glycolic acid concentrations can be very misleading to consumer and professional alike. Higher percentages are not necessarily indicative of "better performance". The intended use of AHA cosmetics is to elicit cosmetic benefits i.e., smoothness, softness, clarity, retexturization, etc. Equally important to acid concentration is pH. An eight percent glycolic acid solution with pH 2.0 will be considerably more active than an eight percent glycolic acid solution with pH 5.0. Low pH solutions (below pH 3.0) may induce skin irritation even at low concentrations (2-5%) conversely high pH solutions (above pH 6.0) at higher concentrations (8-12%) may be very ineffective at producing cosmetic exfoliation benefits. Performance parameters must not be equated to concentrations alone. Glycolic acid concentrations and pH are interdependent. Cosmetics containing various levels of AHAs are usually, but not always, pH adjusted to pH 3.0 5.5 conforming as close to the normal surface skin pH. This pH adjustment yields a ratio of "glycolic acid to glycolic acid salt" reducing the potential of skin irritation without compromising cosmetic performance.

24. Who should not have glycolic acid or other AHA treatments?
Glycolic acid, AHAs and other cosmetics intended to exfoliate the skin should not be administered to skin exhibiting apparent irritation, extreme sensitivity, open sores, cuts, abrasions, sunburn or chemical-thermal burns or used concurrently with prescribed topical or oral medications without a physicians approval and guidance.

Murad Skin Care Acne

What causes acne breakouts?

Acne affects nearly 17 million people in the U.S., making it the most common skin disease in the country. Although most of the population experiences acne at one time or another, its severity is genetically determined and hormonally influenced. The three primary factors influencing acne are:
  • Hyperkeratinization: An overabundance of surface skin
    cells that clump together to clog the pores
  • Sebum activity: Sebaceous glands influenced by androgen
    hormones, which elevate oil (sebum) production
  • P-Acnes bacteria: Bacteria mixed with sebum, irritating the
    pore wall and resulting in inflammation

What triggers acne?

  • Stress can have physiological affects on the body. Stress stimulates a hormone that encourages the sebaceous glands to produce more oil, which increases the chances of breaking out
  • Hormonal changes contribute to the onset of acne. Certain hormones trigger the sebaceous gland to produce more oil, resulting in more clogged pores. Monthly hormonal fluctuations as well as those experienced at the onset of menopause contribute to acne
  • Certain drugs and steroids can also stimulate acne breakouts

What makes Murad different?
Murad Acne products address ALL of the factors of acne and skin breakouts by reducing cell build-up, excess oil and inflammation. Every product contains Dr.'Murad's healthy skin recipe of hydrating agents, anti-inflammatories and antioxidants. Our products aiso include specific acne-fighters, all of which work together to provide the best environment for achieving optimal skin health. In keeping with Murad's inclusive health philosophy, the acne line also features Murad Pure Skin Clarifying Supplement, a patented internal supplement clinically proven to reduce blemishes by 55% in six weeks. Whether you have real acne or something that just looks like acne, Murad can put you on the path to healthy, beautiful skin.

Recommended Murad products for acne:

Murad Techinical Articles


By Howard Murad, M.D.

Just because "everybody knows" that the sun can cause skin damage and that you need to use a sunscreen daily, doesn't mean that "everybody" understands which sunscreen is best. As an aesthetician, you are in a key position to clarify fact vs rumor regarding sun exposure risks. In this way, you can help your clients make informed product decisions based on their own specific needs.

Is All Sunlight "Bad" for You?

To answer that question, we need to first examine the components of sunlight know as the solar spectrum These include three types of ultraviolet light - UVC, UVB and UVA. In addition, the solar spectrum also contains VISIBLE LIGHT AND INFRARED RADIATION.

UVC is almost completely absorbed by the ozone layer, so it has minimal effects on the skin. UVB is primarily responsible for sunburn or erythema. Peak hours for sunburn occur between 10 AM and 2 PM. The medical community now believe that UVB is a major cause of many skin cancers. However, UVB does NOT pass through window glass, unlike all other components of the solar spectrum. UVA is particularly tricky. Though it causes only 1/1000th of the redness of erythema caused by UVB, it penetrates past the epidermis, into the dermas layer. The solar spectrum emits UVA light all day long, and in much greater quantities than UVB. Furthermore. UVA can pass through glass. So if you regularly sit by a window, even though you don't feel heat or redness, you can still be exposed to the skin cancer - producing aspects of UVA. Another problem. With the advent of better UVB sun blockers. people feel they can stay in the sun longer, thereby running the risk of increased UVA penetration.

VISIBLE LIGHT can cause reactions with dyes. It is also responsible for Porphyria reactions in the form of blisters on the hands and face. Naturally, it passes through window glass.

INFRARED RADIATION, with its longer wavelengths, heats up the cells, and may cause damage over extended periods of time. It also passes through glass.

Does "Everybody" Really Need Sunscreens?

In a word, YES! But some need it more than others. The young are at greater risk. Recent theories state that 80% of damage caused by ultraviolet rays occurs before age 18 just because children spend more time in the sun. People who are very fair also burn easily.

In discussing sunscreens, the aesthetician should explain the risks of sun exposure mixed with certain types of common drugs, such as Accutane, Tetracycline, Retin-A, birth control pills or high-blood pressure medications to name but a few. Certain skin diseases like eczema, rosacea and melasma can also make an individual photosensitive. Equally important, those with a family history of skin cancer need appropriate protection. When Did Sunscreens Become Available? In 1928, a mixture of benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate was believed to be the first sunscreen. In the discovery of Para-amino-benzoic acid or, as it's more commonly known, PABA. But is w as not unti1943 came 1978 ns that the FDA categorized sunscreens as drugs intended to protect the structure and function of the skin against sun damage.

What are the Main Types of Sunscreens?

PABA and PABA ESTERS, including Padimate 0 and Padimate A, were the first sunscreens patented. Today, then usefulness is limited compared to some of the newer sunscreens. Since they are only UVB blockers, and can produce a significant incidence of contact and photocontact dermatitis, up to 4% of the population may have a reaction to PABA and its derivatives. PABA may also cause yellow stains on clothing. CINNAMATES absorb UVB with minimal absorption of UVA, Since they are insoluble in water, they are used in waterproof products. SALICYLATES were actually the first UVB sunscreens used. They are non-water soluble, and very stable and nonsensitizing. BENZOPHENONES are UVA/UVB blockers. Since they are water-soluble, normal perspiration removes them. ANTHRANILATES are usually safe and stable compounds, used primarily for multiple UVA blockage. They are also oil-soluble. PHYSICAL AGENTS block UVA, UVB and infrared radiation. White zinc oxide, typically worn by lifeguards on Mei-noses, is an old-fashioned example. Today's new technology has reduced the particle size to micro-fine solution or lotion, a physical agent such as titanium oxide provides a broad protective barrier, yet is mor cosmetically elegant.

What is S.P.F.?

S.P.F. stands for Sun Protection Factor. It is based on the minimal erythema dose multiplied by the SPF nun The minimal erythema dose or MED is the amount of sun exposure required to produce mild redness. So. takes 10 minutes to produce MED and the SPF is 15, it takes 10 x 15 or 150 minutes of sun exposure to pro, redness with SPF 15 protection. This works well for UVB, but not for UVA since UVA rays do not produce measurable redness. However, a coupiE of methods have recently been developed for UVA measurement. One used phototoxic medication to induce more erythema after light exposure. The other used UVA as the single source of energy in photo testing.

How Important is Substantivity?

Substantivity is defined as the sunscreen's resistance to being washed off or removed by perspiration. It is virtually as important as the active ingredient itself. After all, what good is a sunscreen if it only works for five minutes? Newer products may now be classified as water-resistant, meaning the skin is protected for up to 40 minutes of continuous water exposure, and waterproof, with a continuous water exposure time of 80 minutes.

What's the Future of Sunscreen Protection?

Your role as skin care advisor looks even more important when it comes to the range of upcoming sunscreens. These include: (1) New ingredients with broader protection, (2) Natural agents, such as melanin, used in the sunscreen; (3) A combination of several active ingredients to act as free radical scavengers (free radicals are unstable molecules that are released in the cell and cause damage to it and these ingredients may also possibly reduce damage already inflicted by the sun); and (4) the addition of various vitamins such as Vitamins C, E and A, to enhance sunscreen effectiveness. Perhaps in no other area can your influence be so great because you need to get the word out that everyone requires sunscreen protection.


By Howard Murad, M.D.

We are entering an era where there is going to be an even closer partnership between the aesthetician and the dermatologist. The consumer. clients, patient is beginning to demand the benefits of the care that both professionals can give. As there is a critical role to be played by the aesthetician for the improvement of skin care. we may need to educate the physicians on how beneficial this joint relationship can be. In order to develop a referral relationship with the dermatologist, I would suggest that the aesthetician first do a little homework. Try to determine which dermatologist or cosmetic surgeons are open to the concept of working together with you. I feel certain that most physicians would like to work together as a team as long as they do not feel threatened (possible loss of patients). However they need to understand what services the aesthetician could perform.

Therefore. I would suggest that you do an inventory of all your services, especially listing those areas where the client would benefit from a combined effort of the two professionals. These could include paramedical make-up for post operative care. facials prior to and after chemical peeling, and acne care facials to help the acne clients. patients.

It is most helpful also to demonstrate to the physician your knowledge of skin care and skin disease. To this end I would suggest that you read all articles about skin cancer. skin disease. etc. not to treat them, but to recognize them so that your clients can be referred appropriately.

The aestheticians should be aware of the fact that they have as much to offer as the dermatologist. and should make this quite clear in any contacts they may have with a physician. It should also be clear that all patients referred to the salon would go back to the physician. and that the many clients in the salon will probably be referred to the physician for their medical care.

For example of one way in which this relationship can be established, we are including a letter that we sent to many of the dermatologists in our community. This was followed up with a phone call which was mostly directed to the office manager.

If time allows, maybe an opportunity could be set up to discuss the benefits that the patient/client could derive from the partnership of the doctor-aesthetician.

There are possibilities of having open house at your salon where the physician could speak on topics of interest to your clients, or the possibility of a similar structure at the physician's office where you could speak on a topic of interest to the patients.

Once you get a referral, it would be important to know exactly what the physician would expect or need in terms of care for the client. and of course to send a thank you note with a little bit of information as to what was accomplished. and what future plans there are for continued care.


When that question is asked of almost anyone with a skin care background, the answer is moisture - water. While that has been known fo centuries, it is only recently that we have been able to understan the many principles involved in adding water to the skin. We need to study the anatomy and physiology of the epidermins to begin to understand these principles. Briefly put, the entire function of the epidermis is to manufacture stratum corneum which will protect the skin from the enviroment assault. The stratum corneum not only act as a barrier to various assaults, it also acts to maintain the appropriate functions of the skin itself - to maintain the moisture of the skin, it helps balance body fluids.

Within the stratum corneum or odland bodies which are discharged from the keratincocytes into the intercellulear spaces. These granules establish a barrier to water loss since they are basically lipids which are hydrophobic, and therefore prevent transepidermal water loss while modulating cohesion of the stratum corneum. Besides thes odland bodies the lining epidermis also produces various other lipids which have a greater presence in the stratum corneum.

Ceramides are relatively impermeable to water and are resistant to oxidation and environmental assault. Natural moisture factors are hygroscopic water soluble substances which absorb water. Natural moisture factors result in epidermal cellular differentiation, a by-product of the protein synthesis profillagrin is the keratohyaline Granule at the stratum granuloseum - stratum corneum interface.

Now that we know a few of the of these facts as to how the epidermis functions, we can begin to understand how possibly we can improve on it. I feel this is a 5 step procedure.

1. We must add ceramides or substanced which are involved in ceramid production such as linoleac acid or borage oil to prevent transepidermal water loss.

2. We must exfoliate to remove stratum corneum which is not functioning appropriately.

3. We must add natural moisture factors such as sodium PCA & hyaluronic acid to absorb moisture from the environment.

4. We must add anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation, such as Vitamin E, licorice extract, Aloe Vera gel, allantoins, etc. We know that inflammation leads to water loss as well as undesirable appearance of redness on the skin.

5. We must add agents that will normalize the function of the epidermis, such as Vitamin A derivatives.

I believe that only when all five of these steps are accomplished can we absolutely hydrate the skin.

Howard Murad, M.D.


By Howard Murad, M.D. and Paul Scott Premo

Alcohol, in the context of cosmetic formulations, is a frequently misunderstood ingredient. Despite the fact that alcohol can be extremely beneficial in a particular formula, its ambiguity has given rise to some controversy. That's why it is extremely important to understand not only what alcohol is, but, more important, the differences in the various types of alcohol.

Alcohol is a clear, colorless, volatile, flammable liquid synthesized or obtained by the fermentation of sugars and starches. Widely used as an external antiseptic, it is also used - either pure (absolute or ethyl) alcohol and denatured alcohol -- as a dispersing agent or solvent in everything from paint to perfume. For cosmetic purposes, we are most concerned with SD alcohol (SDA), which stands for Special Denatured Alcohol. Denatured means, simply, that denaturants have been added to ethyl or absolute alcohol to prevent oral consumption. A mild cosmetic alcohol, SDA is an excellent delivery vehicle commonly used in astringents, toners and gels. Alcohol's are also used as thickeners, solidifiers and solvents in perfumes, shampoos, skin and shaving preparations. Examples of Special Denatured Alcohol used in cosmetic formulations are SDA/3A, SDA/39C SDA/40 and SDA/40A. The number indicates the specific denaturing agent used.

There are also alcohols, such as cetyl or stearyl alcohol, that are forms of fatty acid waxes. Predominately unsaturated, waxy solid alcohols that are non-toxic to the skin, these alcohols function in an emollient manner and are used as thickeners and emulsifiers. They help build emulsions and in skin lotions and creams they build semi occlusive barriers preventing skin water loss (TEWL). The alcohols have no association with absolute, ethyl or SD alcohol.

Rubbing alcohol, or Isopropyl alcohol is another type of alcohol. It contains no less than 68 to 71 ethyl alcohol; the remainder consists of denaturants. It is most commonly used a a "rub-down" preparation or liniment, and as a local antiseptic.

While the trend is to "alcohol-free" skin toners and fresheners, especially for dry or sensitive skin, it is important to remember that SD alcohol is not necessarily dehydrating to the skin when it is mixed with other moisture-binding ingredients Its effects depends entirely on its concentration in the formulation and, of course, the chemistry of the total formulation. One ingredient cannot be taken out of context; its appropriateness relative to the formulation must be evaluated within the framework of the product and results you are trying to achieve, along with the other ingredients.

Oily-prone and acne-prone skin can benefit from formulations containing SDA. Generally, SDA is a mild, non-dehydrating, non-irritating, cosmetic alcohol used as a vehicle to improve the efficacy of a particular product. Combined with other ingredients, it is an ideal vehicle to allow better skin penetration.


By Howard Murad, M.D.

In the next 20 years, nearly 40 million American women will pass through menopause, a period commonly known as "change of life." By the year 2020, about 60 million women will be at or through this transition. What is menopause and why is it so unsettling? Menopause is the cessation of menstruation during which a woman's ovaries produce less of the female hormone estrogen and it signals unwanted aging for women in a society which highly prizes youth. In addition, menopause is unpredictable. The drop in hormone levels differs from woman to woman, as do overall menopausal symptoms. While the onset of menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, some women in their early 30's experience menopausal sleeplessness, weight gain, irritability, temporary memory loss, hot flashes, brittle hair and dry skin.

Let's concentrate on the effects of menopause on maturing skin. Psychologists find that good, youthful skin qualh is one of the primary factors linked to a woman's physical self-esteem. Although the eventual dryness ar inelasticity of skin that come with age are inevitable facts of life, the aging process is a cumulative one that occu at varying rates from individual to individual far before menopause begins.

Three variables -- heredity, environment and lifestyle -- determine how a woman's skin will respond during menopause. How did her mother's skin age? Has she protected her skin from the drying, discoloring damage caused by environmental hazards such as sun, wind, pollution and indoor and outdoor heating? Does she live a healthy life that includes exercise, balanced nutrition and sufficient rest?

As menopause approaches, normal imbalances that upset a woman's skin equilibrium, combined with biological precedent and the lifestyle choices she has made, will determine the course of aging on her skin. To understand how to minimize, and in some cases even delay, the menopausal aging process of skin, we must first look at the structural changes that occur during the maturation cycle of this important organ. The subdermis, or layer of fat that cushions the skin, deflates while the production of collagen and elastin (structural protein tissue) lessens. The dermis (the skin's supporting and nourishing layer) thins out and the skin loses much of its "extensibility," or ability to bounce back. Sweat and oil secretions also slow down, causing the skin to lose much of its natural protective film, which in turn makes the skin susceptible to moisture loss and more vulnerable to damage. Wrinkles become facial highlights, while the skin assumes a dull, discolored, rough. dry appearance.

Mature skin also suffers from a decelerated cell renewal rate resulting in the accumulation of dead cells on its surface layer, the epidermis. This process of building and shedding cells in the right amounts is affected by hormone levels in the bloodstream.

Although there are no established rules for managing menopausal skin, proper skin care and long-term preventive techniques can help lessen its visible influence. Remember that skin reacts well to excellent treatment at all ages. The following whole-being therapeutic approach includes methods that encourage healthy, supple skin at any age.

First, since it is universally agreed that sun is the number one damaging influence on the skin, avoid the results of premature aging by wearing sunblock, protective clothing and sunglasses that protect against the sun's harmful rays while outdoors.

Living a balanced life shows on the face. Following the Greek maxim, "everything in moderation," exercise to keep the circulation moving. Good circulation sends nutrients, oxygen and moisture to the skin ridding it of excess impurities and toxins. Get plenty of sleep; eat a nutritious diet high in fibers, low in fats, salt and carbohydrates; avoid undue stress; don't smoke or over medicate and avoid excessive alcohol consumption. Hydrate the skin inside and out. Drink eight glasses of water a day. Always use a moisturizer and, as the skin 4 matures, moisturize more intensively.

Accelerate cell shedding or exfoliation with products that utilize the advanced alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) glycolic acid, a natural derivative of sugar cane. These formulations have proven beneficial in loosening the bonds that hold dead cells to the surface of the skin. The cells slough off more readily, softening the appearance of skin. The newer, fresher-looking skin below is exposed and is better able to absorb natural moisture from the air. Glycolic acid based skin treatments are available which contain special ingredient complexes that work to alleviate uneven skin tone, sallowness, and age and sun spots. The lightening agent hydroquinone helps to soften pigmentation flaws and restore skin clarity. Anti-oxidant vitamin complexes A and E help neutralize unstable oxygen molecules called free radicals that accelerate skin aging if left unchecked.

Even though we live in the 1990's, many myths still surround menopause. Combat these myths by learning about the subject beforehand to know what to expect. Then, to make the best of menopausal skin when the time comes. consult a dermatologist to initiate the most effective management program possible.


By Howard Murad, M.D.

Meredith Murad Hilane Murad Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most prevalent form of cancer and plagues close to 500,000 Americans every Traditionally, people in their later years have been most affected, especially men who have spent long periods c working outdoors. This classification is slowly changing, however, as both women and younger people are a:sr: , Basal Cell Carcinoma as commonly as men.

The major cause of Basal Cell Carcinoma is overexposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Chronic sun expe., accounts for approximately 95% of all Basal Cell Carcinomas which generally develop on exposed body parts sur:- the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders and back. Other causes of Basal Cell Carcinoma include: ingestion of arseic. complications with burns or scars and vaccinations. The depletion of the ozone layer, due to excessive amounts cf chloroflourocarbons in the atmosphere. also contributes to the development of skin cancer. This is because try: chlorofluorocarbons severely limit the ozone's ability to filter and protect against the sun's ultraviolet rays.

Because the affects of sun exposure are cumulative over the course of one's lifetime, the most likely candidates fcr the development of Basal Cell Carcinoma include people who have spent a lot of time in the sun. Those with fair skip and light hair are also more susceptible since they do not have the melanin protection that darker skinned people have. Individuals with outdoor occupations or hobbies and people living in high altitudes or close to the equator are also highly susceptible.

There are five major signs of Basal Cell Carcinoma and it is likely that two or more of these characteristics may occur simultaneously in the same tumor These five warning signs include: an open sore that remains open for three or more weeks and may bleed, ooze or crust; a reddish patch, usually appearing on the chest, shoulders, arms or legs. The patch may be irritated or may be free of any discomfort. Another warning sign of Basal Cell Carcinoma is the appearance of a smooth growth that is indented in the center and has elevated and rolled borders. Other characteristics of the cancer include: a shiny bump or nodule, often mistaken for a mole, usually pearly or transparent in nature and pink. red or white in color and scar-like area which is white, yellow or waxy and has undefined borders.

There is a wide variety of treatments available for Basal Cell Carcinoma although the exact method depends on the doctor's analysis of both the patient and the tumor. The most widely used method of treatment is called electrosurgery and curettage. in which the dermatologist scrapes off the cancerous tissue with a curette and then employs an electric needle to burn a safety margin around the scraped area. Doctors may also utilize some other common forms of treatment which include: excisional surgery, cutting out the entire growth; cryotherapy. using liquid nitrogen to freeze the cancerous tissue; radiation therapy, the use of X-rays to destroy the cells; laser surgery. the use of a laser beam to remove the tumor or destroy it by vaporization; or Moh's surgery. This is a very effective process whereby the doctor removes thin layers of the tumor and examines each one under a microscope to determine the pattern of the tumor. This process is repeated until the cancer is completely excised.

It is extremely important to recognize the signs of the Basal Cell Carcinoma because of its tendency to resemble other less harmful skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema or moles. Repeated self-examination change or abnormalities of the skin should be reported to a physician immediately. Catching is crucial and any g surrounding tissue and require more extensive forms of treatment BcauseasalCmeoll more damage to Carcinoma in its early stages will aid in treatment as the tumor will grow over time and a larger tumor will cause more damage to surrounding tissue and require more extensive forms of treatment.

The Aesthetician's job is to council their clients to avoid repeated. prolonged sun exposure. especially between the hours of 10:00 AM and 3:00 PM. If they do spend time in the sun. they should be advised to wear sunscreen. It also helps for the aesthetician to be aware of the different skin types so that they can better aid their clients on skin care and cancer prevention. These skin types include: Type I; people with fair skin, blue (or sometimes brown) eyes. freckles and white unexposed skin. These people always burn easily and severely, tan lithe or none and peel. Type II: people with fair skin. red. blond or brown hair blue, hazel or brown eyes and white unexposed skin. People in Type II skin usually burn easily and severely. tan little and peel Type III includes the average caucasian who tansr fairly easily and burns only moderately. The fourth skin type describes people with white or light brown skin. dark hai and eyes and light brown or white unexposed skin. These individuals burn very little, tan easily and exhibit easily immediate pigment darkening when exposed to sun. People with skin type V have with an immediate pigment darkening reaction. The sixth and final skin t brown skin, rarely burn and tan very never burn and tan excessively exhibiting an immediate pigment darkening reaction.

Aestheticians should also be aware of suspicious areas on their client's skin and refer them to a physician if they suspect skin cancer. After a client has had surgery. the aesthetician can be helpful in introducing them to paramedical make-up which is very successful in masking the scars left by the surgical procedure.


BY Howard Murad, M.D. and Paul Scott Premo

ONE OF THE UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE EPIDERMIS is its ability to regenerate or renew itself continuously. The constant process of shedding and renewing epidermal cells is called desquamation, from the Latin "desquamatous" meaning "to scale off".

This article presents a comprehensive analysis of this unique physiological process and its relevance to professional skin care. In addition, we will discuss both mechanical and chemical methods of accelerating the natural removal of dead skin cells.

The mechanics of desquamation are complex and frequently misunderstood. On first inspection this subject re-. ay appear complicated and technical, but stick with it. The time spent studying and the information gained will he worth the effort.

The epidermis is a self-renewing barrier to water loss and is resistant to chemical, physical and microbiology-, ins t. The epidermis is not uniform and can be subdivided into two basic layers: the outermost stratum corneum (the dead skin cells on the outer skin surface) and the viable stratum malpighi (the living part of the epidermis where cellular activity).activity). The stratum malpighi can be divided into three sub-sections (working inward from the corneum). the stratum granulosum (granule cell or granular layer), the stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer) stratum basale (basal cell layer).

THE MAJOR CELL OF THE EPIDERMIS is the keratinocyte, which produces the highly resistant insol keratin. Keratin provides the protective barrier function of the epidermis.

As the cells mature in the different levels of the epidermis and traverse from the basal cell layer outward stratum corneum, they change shape and structure. This entire physiological process of cellular proliferatic - represents the maturing of the keratinocytes and is referred to as keratinization. How long does it take for a keratinocyte to traverse the four layers? Estheticians are often taught that this is a 28-day process. This is a rough estimate for normal skin with no unusual conditions.

According to Walter Lever, MD, and Gundula Schaumberg-Lever, MD, in Histopathology of the Skin, medically it can take 26 to 75 days for this process to occur depending upon the age and condition of the skin. It can take up to 19 days for the epidermal cells to reproduce in the basal cell layer. The time required for the replicated cell to travel from the basal cell layer the granular layer is between 26 to 42 days with an additional 15 days until the cells are desquamated (sloughed) from the stratum corneum. Therefore, from basal cell replication to complete cell turnover would represent a total epidermal renewal time of 60 to 76 days. These findings were concluded both on the basis of fluorescent dye stains and autoradiographs.

WHAT FACTORS AFFECT THE SPEED OF DESQUAMATION? Probably the most important are the dermal influences such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), androgen and estrogen hormones, and various vitamins such as A and D. Epidermal chalones are hormones that inhibit the metabolic process thereby restraining epidermal mitosis. In addition, age, condition of the skin, genetic make up and the environment all influence normal cell proliferation. In general, the younger the skin, the faster the desquamation process.

Environmental factors also play a strong role. When the skin is exposed to excessive sunlight and environmental stress, a natural response of the stratum corneum is to become thicker to protect the sublayers of the epidermis. This results in a slower natural desquamation process and a dry, rough and sallow appearance to the skin Overexposure to sunlight that accounts for "skin peeling" may be evidence of disruption of normal epidermal proliferation.

Genetic disorders also can influence normal cell proliferation. In psoriasis, in particular, the total epidermal turnover time may be only seven to ten days: basal cell replication of one to two days, traversing the stratum malpighi from four to six days and final desquamation from the stratum corneum in two days. Abnormal epidermal proliferation is also observed in hyperkeratotic (scaly) disorders such as ichthyosis, a congenital skin disease characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin.

Excessively dry, rough skin, medically termed epidermal xerosis, is a condition that affects many people. It appears to be the result of abnormal desquamation. There are cosmetic and medical methods available to counterbalance the effects of decreased desquamation and reestablish the equilibrium of the skin.

Exfoliation, from the Latin "exfoliatus" meaning "to strip off leaves," is the accelerated removal, through mechanical or cosmetic chemical intervention of corneocytes (dead epidermal cells ). Exfoliation substances and techniques provide substantial improvement in dry skin, acne and to modify photodamaged skin depending upon the technique and substance used.

Cosmetic exfoliation reduces corneocytes from the stratum corneum and is considered to be a non-invasive procedure. Cosmetic exfoliation can be administered mechanically or chemically. Both methods can provide positive benefits when properly recommended and administered. However, these methods can be misused by both practitioner and client and can result in irritant dermatitis.

Let's discuss each method and the pros and cons associated with its use.

MECHANICAL EXFOLIATION can be divided into two parts: the use of certain compounds and the use of certain tools. Mechanical exfoliating compounds include polyethylene particles or granules, silica, and crushed fruit pits and seeds. Tools include facial brushes, textured sponges and pads, and loofahs. Although the implements may be different, the theory and process of these products and tools are similar.

These substances require mechanical application by applying pressure on the epidermis. Friction and abrasion loosen and reduce corneocytes, providing a type of superficial planing. Improved smoothness and clarity are the objectives. However. excessive abrasion can result in skin irritation. It is difficult to administer consistent pressure during a treatment or home use. Too light a pressure may not be effective, but too heavy a pressure could be damaging. Abrasion may cause uneven skin stripping.

Use caution when recommending or administering abrasive materials on skin exhibiting any of the following conditions: pre-existing irritation (dermatitis), open wounds or lesions, sunburn, post-chemically peeled skin by a physician, couperous skin, severe acne or thin, crepe paper skin. As with any skin care treatment, the extent of mechanical exfoliation recommended will vary with the pre-existing condition of the skin, skin preparation and duration of use.

CHEMICAL EXFOLIATION involves the application of a variety of low concentrated chemicals. The following are the most common chemical substances used for exfoliation: salicylic acid (0.5 - 2% over-the-counter (OTC); resorcinol: enzymatic compounds such as papain, bromelain and pancreatin; and alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs).

Salicylic acid, resorcinol and enzyme compounds are keratolyic substances that decompose the keratin composition of the stratum corneum. AHAs function by interference with ionic bonding and intercellular cohesiveness between corneocytes, or the glue-like substance between dead skin cells. These substances are also considered non-invasive due to their low concentrations (5-10% home use), and are therefore limited to corneocyte reduction.

Salicylic acid and resorcinol are also effective external antiseptics, the former being approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and sold over-the-counter for the treatment and prevention of acne blemishes. When used in preparations as active ingredients, some associated contraindications are excessive skin dryness, peeling, erythema (redness), pruritus (itching) and epidermal hyperpigmentation - particularly with resorcinol.

Biological enzymes are proteolytic substances that decompose whole proteins into smaller fragmented proteins (amino acids, polypeptides, and di- and tri-peptides). Epidermal corneocytes are composed mainly of keratin protein of higher glycine (an amino acid) content than the harder keratin cystine content of hair and nails. The theoretical mechanism of action produced by enzymatic compounds is a "softening" or breaking down of the keratin protein, thus reducing corneocytes.

These substances are activated by constant contact with a moist environment (water) and are limited to the amount of corneocyte reduction. Minor irritation can result in some hypersensitive individuals.

AHAs are a group of non-toxic organic acids with origins in many food substances. Glycolic and lactic acids are the most widely used, primarily due to their small molecular orientation. The exact mechanism of action is unknown; however, the accepted theoretical application from these acids in low concentration is via interference with ionic bonding and cohesiveness between corneocytes as mentioned previously. In low concentrations (between 5-15%), these acids diminish corneocyte cohesion and are therefore indicated for conditions associated with hyperkeratinization. At these concentrations, a superficial non-invasive exfoliation is produced.

Cosmetic applications of AHAs are safe and beneficial when properly compounded and administered. Do not exceed recommended concentrations. Some potential complications arise when concentrations are too high and relative pH is too low (extreme acidity). Partial neutralization adjusts pH levels between pH 3.5 to 4.5, yielding solutions of ammonium/sodium glycolate or lactate. These preparations reduce the chance of skin irritations by modifying the pH.

The extent of chemical exfoliation, as with mechanical exfoliation, is determined by the pre-existing condition of the skin, skin preparation, exposure time and duration of use. As with mechanical exfoliation, exercise caution when administering chemical exfoliation on skin exhibiting skin irritations, sunburn, or open wounds and lesions.

Cosmetic chemical exfoliation using any of the aforementioned substances is often mistakenly promoted as "chemical peels". Chemobrasion, the scientific term for a chemical peel, is an INVASIVE procedure; it removes living tissue in addition to corneocytes. Chemical peels reach below the epidermis; therefore, they should be performed ONLY by a qualified dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon. There are risk factors, such as viral infection, persistent erythema. hypertrophic scarring and hyper-hypopigmentation, involved with chemical peels that a non-medical professional is not equipped to address.

COSMETIC AND MECHANICAL EXFOLIATION METHODS can provide substantial improvement in the appearance of the skin through encouraging normal epidermal desquamation. It is important that the practitioner understand how different substances can assist or impede this normal physiological process of the skin.

Whatever the methodology, the ultimate goal of the consumer is a clearer, smoother, healthier-looking complexion It is up to estheticians to let their clients know about the different ways to achieve this. Estheticians can offer the various non-invasive professional exfoliation treatments discussed in this article. They should refer consumers with more serious skin conditions to a qualified medical practitioner. Thoroughly educated estheticians can be a source of information for their clients, properly and cautiously evaluating the depth of the problem, and making clients aware of the alternative solutions.


HR Jakubovic and AB Ackerman, Epidermal Cornification, Dermatology Vol. 1, Moschella and Hurley MD (1985) p 18-20
W Lever, MD, and G Schaumberg-Lever, MD, Histology of the Skin, Histopathology of the Skin. Fifth Edition (1975) p 9-15
DJ Gawkrodger, MD, Microanatomy of the Skin, Dermatology (1992) p 2-9
EJ Van Scott, MD, and RJ Yu, PhD, Hyperkerainization, Corneocyte Cohesion and Alpha Hydroxy Acids, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Nov 1984
EJ Van Scott, MD, and RJ Yu, PhD, Alpha Hydroxy Acids: Therapeutic Potentials, The Canadian Journal of Dermatology, Vol 1, Nov/Dec 1989
H Murad, MD, L Moy, MD, R Moy, MD, Use of AHA's Add New Dimensions to Chemical Peeling, Cosmetic Dermatology, May 1990

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fortifying delicate skin, improving skin comfort all day

Murad Neutralizing Treatment Powder

Delivers targeted treatment on the go by:
immediately covering redness, relieving "flush and blush" symptoms

3. Hydrate | Protect

Murad Correcting Moisturizer SPF 15

Neutralizes and protects dry, irritated skin by:
minimizing redness with color correcting tint, shielding against sun irritation

Murad Treatment Products

2. Treat | Repair

Murad Day Reform Treatment All Skin Types

Return skin to a younger-looking state inane day. This revolutionary treatment decreases fine lines and wrinkles while creating a protective barrier to prevent aging.

Murad Night Reform Treatment All Skin Types

See improvement overnight.
This patented formula is scientifically proven to increase firmness by 28%.
A restorative combination of our patented Advanced Performance Complex along with glycolic acid and oat beta glucan helps to stimulate cell renewal and uncover skin's vibrancy and tone.

Murad Age Spot and Pigment Lightening Gel All Skin Types

Target unwanted discoloration.
This patented gel formula combines glycolic acid with 2% hydroquinone and our Advanced Performance complex to effectively fade age spots, freckles, and hyperpigmentation for more even skin tone, clarity and brightness.

Murad Eye Treatment Complex SPF8 All Skin Types

Reveal smoother skin. This patented formula contains glycolic acid and our Advanced Performance Complex to gently exfoliate, encouraging cell renewal and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Provitamin 85 repairs and protects to recapture a more youthful look

Murad Hydrating Gel Mask Normal or Combination Dry or Sensitive

Boost moisture to the maximum. This treatment mask features humectants that bind water to the skin, plumping up fine lines and softening texture.
Azulene and lavender calm dehydrated skin for a healthier, more balanced complexion.

Murad Exfoliating Fruit Enzyme Mask All Skin Types

Expose your soft side.
Exfoliating papaya fruit and pineapple juice enzymes easily and gently dissolve away dead surface cells, revealing newer, more radiant skin. Squalane naturally hydrates while antioxidant lemon extract protects skin's newfound smoothness.

Murad Body Firming Cream All Skin Types

Scientifically proven to increase skin firmness by 20% in 10 minutes. This ultrarich high performance body cream delivers dual action results, restoring maximum moisture and firmness to skin, keeping it in optimal condition.
Shea butter and sunflower seed oil nourish and restore.
suppleness. Vitamin C and soy flour keep skin firm and more resilient.

Murad Youth Builder Supplement All Skin Types

Supplement smoothness.
This patented complex is scientifically proven to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles up to 34% in five weeks.
Glucosamine, amino acids and vitamin A work to boost collagen production and stimulate healthy cell function while improving skin tone. Essential fatty acids hydrate cells from the inside:

Murad Wet Suit Cell Hydrating Supplement All Skin Types

Hold hydration where it counts.
This skin-strengthening supplement contains essential fatty acids that lock moisture into the cells, making them healthier and more resistant to damaging inflammation and oxidation:

Murad Soothing Lip Therapy All Skin Types

Soothe away dryness.
This healing salve brings immediate relief to dry, chapped lips or minor skin irritations. Salicylic acid, petrolatum and vitamin E smooth and condition.

Murad Skin Perfecting Lotion All Skin Types

Achieve uniform texture and tone. This ultra-light, oil-free lotion hydrates without leaving an oily residue. Retinol and arnica work together to reduce redness and help prevent clogged pores for a softer, more evenly balanced texture.

Murad Perfecting Day Cream SPF 30 All Skin Types

Provides maximum hydration and sun protection by moisturizing to restore suppleness and delivering powerful antioxidants and broad spectrum sunscreens.

Murad Perfecting Night Cream Dry or Sensitive

Rejuvenate as you rest.
This restorative cream contains sunflower and evening primrose oils to hydrate and condition. Vitamin A promotes healthy cell renewal for a youthful, dewy texture.

Murad Sensitive Soothing Serum All Skin Types

Infuse instant moisture. This weightless gel with ceramides and botanical extracts works with your moisture adding suppleness and resiliency.

Murad Perfecting Serum Normal or Combination Dry or Sensitive

Keep moisture where it belongs. This silky gel with squalane and avocado oil plumps up fine lines as it holds onto hydration. Use alone or under makeup for a flawless finish.

Murad Moisture Silk Eye Gel All Skin Types

Soften and smooth around the eyes. This lightweight gel with algae extract, allantoin and caffeine offers maximum hydration as it soothes and depuffs. The cream ribbon gives delicate skin a silky finish.

Murad Vitalic FAQ

What happens to skin that lack energy?

Our skin is a reflection of our body's overall health. Over time, the constant juggling of a busy lifestyle can deplete energy from they body, leaving skin dull and tired. Signs of fatigued skin include lack of resilience and vitality, fine lines, dehydration, and an uneven dull complexion.

Infuse your skin with natural energy!

Created to protect, strengthen and revitalize skin, Murad Vitalic counteracts the damage that harsh environments and hectic lifestyles can reflect in your skin. Murad Energizing Pomegranate Complex features Pomegranate Extract, one of nature's most powerful antioxidants, along with Artemia, a marine extract that stimulates the metabolism of cells for skin renewal. When combined, these two powerful ingredients infuse energy directly into the skin while fighting against the signs of stress and fatigue.

Energy from the inside out

In keeping with Murad philosophy that internal health and external beauty are instrinsically linked, Murad Vitalic introduces Murad Vitalic Sparks Energy Supplement. Featuring a unique blend of vitamins and natural energy boosters, Murad Vital Sparks instantly refuels your mind and body, providing an immediate surge of energy. Take anytime you need an energy lift!

Murad Advanced Performance FAQ

What is the Murad Recipe?

The Murad Recipe provides the base for every single skincare product we make. It is a combination of ingredients with properties essential for healthy skin.
The Murad Recipe consists of:

. Hydrating ingredients - to provide moisture to skin cells
. Antioxidants - to neutralize aging free radicals
. Anti-inflammatory ingredients - to calm skin irritation and redness

How does glycolic acid work?

Glycolic acid exfoliates excess dead skin cell buildup to

reveal fresh new skin underneath. Sloughing away this

dulling top layer improves hydration and enables skin to

be more receptive to treatment ingredients. The result is smoother, softer skin with more even color and tone.

What is healthy skin?

Skin health starts at the microscopic, cellular level.
Healthy skin cells are those which are adequately hydrated, resilient (resulting in skin elasticity and tone), consistent (in color, shape, and size), and with an absence of free radical damage (the oxidation process leading to fine lines, wrinkles, textural irregularities, and pigment changes).

How can a supplement help my skin look younger?

Murad's Inclusive Health TM philosophy marries topical skincare with internal supplements to maximize the results for both. Murad's Internal Skincare@ Supplements nourish and fortify from the inside, providing your body with essential vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids, designed to create the optimal environment for skin health. Youth Builder Supplement, features ingredients such as glucosamine, amino acids, vitamins and minerals, to enhance smoothness, tone and elasticity by boosting collagen production from the inside. In independent scientific studies, it has been proven to reduce visible lines and wrinkles by 34%.

Dr. Murad Note

A note from the Doctor. .As a practicing dermatologist and trained pharmacist, I've worked to combine my medical and pharmaceutical experience to provide a line of products that will not only encourage healthy skin but will also combat the signs of aging.

My signature line, Advanced Performance Skincare, combines glycolic acid-based treatments with scientifically advanced formulations to reduce fine lines and wrinkles.
In addition, each product features what we call the Murad Recipe, a nourishing balance of the hydrating ingredients, antioxidants and anti-inflammatories necessary for a creating an environment for healthy skin.

Every treatment product in this Advanced Performance Skincare System features our patented Advanced Performance complex to encourage healthy cells.
This means, when using the products daily as directed, you will notice dramatic, overall improvement in your skin with enhanced clarity, elasticity, hydration and firmness.

Howard Murad

Dermatologist Pharmacist Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology at UCLA

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