Glossary - A

Glossary - A


A Syn-Hycan (Tetradecyl Aminobutyroylvalylaminobutync Urea Trifluoroacetate, Glycerin, Magnesium Chloride)

- Helps to fight sagging skin by stimulating GAG biosynthesis and increasing the expression of important protein fibers. Fresh hyaluronan and stronger collagen fibrils result in a visible remodeling effect and firmer skin.


Acai Berry

- Is native to tropical Central and South America. Acai pulp is rich in oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid, as well as Vitamins B, C, and E. This berry has high levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties and has been used topically for its astringent and antibacterial properties.


Acai Pulp Powder

- Acai berry is rich in vitamins B1, B2, B3, C and E, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and essential fatty acids. Acai berry detoxifies, improves cellular regeneration and immunity, balances healthy lipids and contains more than ten times the free-radical fighting antioxidants found in red grapes or green tea. It is one of the most potent botanical antioxidants and therefore a strong ally against inflammation and cell destruction caused by environmental stressors like UV radiation and pollution.


Acetyl Carnitine (also known as ALCAR) for Anti-Aging

- Studies have shown it will help power up bovine collagen, prevents sun-damage and really repairs your skin damage you’ve already sustained.


Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetyl Ester

- Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetyl Ester is a product obtained by the coupling of the acetyl ester of tyrosine from Dipeptide-1 (q.v.) with the cetyl ester of arginine from dipeptide-1.


Acetyl Dipeptide-3 Aminohexanoate

- A new tripeptide discovery that reinforces the skin’s natural defense mechanism, promoting optimal skin fitness, especially in acne--prone skin. Reinforces the skin’s innate immunity, stimulating the first line of defense between the skin and the environment. Lowers the risk of possible infections by external agents in acne-prone skin.


Acetyl Hexapeptide-3

- A neuro-peptide that diminishes creases and wrinkles by preventing the signal protein, catecholamine, from connecting to the cell. This fostersthe triggering of muscle contraction without paralysis, allowing natural expression and movement within the target area.


Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 (Thymulen® 4)

- As a common anti-aging peptide, Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 (Thymulen® 4) boosts skin regeneration and reinforces cutaneous immune defenses.


Acetyl Tyrosine (N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine)

- Acetyl Tyrosine (N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine) is an amino acid that assists with the absorption of Ascorbic Acid and encourages fibroblast activity to increase collagen production.



- a disorder of the skin caused by inflammation of the skin glands and hair follicles; specifically : a form found chiefly in adolescents and marked by pimples especially on the face


Acorus Calamus (Sweet Flag) Root Extract

- Essential oil containing amino acids; has antiseptic properties and aids in healing and soothing skin.


Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (AACP)

- Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (AACP) contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups allowing for the polymer to bind to both water and oil, making it useful in combining the two phases to create a single smooth consistency.


Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer

- Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer is a gelling agent that thickens, emulsifies, and stabilizes solutions. It leaves a feeling of velvety softness.


Adaptonyl (Withania Somnifera (Indian Ginseng) Root Extract)

- Extracted from the roots of Ashwaganda, more commonly known as Indian Ginseng. Revitalizes stressed cells - stimulating regeneration by reactivatina cell develonment and limiting matrix degradation.


Adenine (6-aminopurine)

- Component of ATP critical for cellular respiration. Increases absorption of nutrients into the cell and faciliates elimination of waste.


Adenosine (Adenoscan or Adenocard)

- Adenosine (Adenoscan or Adenocard) is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside that forms from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).


Adifyline (Acetyl Hexaeptide-38)

- A peptide that increases fatty tissue volume. It leads to higher lipid accumulation and volume growth in the breast.


Agave Tequilana (Blue Agave) Extract

- Agave Tequilana (Blue Agave) Extract is an extract of the leaf of the blue agave, Agave tequilana. It softens, soothes and moisturizes skin.


Age Spots

- benign flat spots of dark pigmentation on the skin (as from exposure to the sun) occurring especially among older people -- called also liver spots


Albumen (Egg white or Glair/Glaire)

- Albumen is the name for the clear liquid (also called the egg white or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.



- Used as a solvent or carrier for active ingredients, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial.


Alcohol Denat. (Denatured alcohol)

- A mixture of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) with a denaturing agent.


Algae Extract

- An emollient that restores moisture content and has antioxdant properties. Protects the mitochondria and increases the ATP-levels of skin cells, allows for cell turnover.


Algin (Alginic acid or Alginate)

- Nutrient-rich algae-derivative. Used as a thickening agent.


Algowhife (Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract)

- A marine skin brightening active that reduces melanin synthesis by stimulating cellular renewal that encourages the elimination of melanin by means of migration towards the strateum comeum.



- a crystalline oxidation product C4H6N4O3 of uric acid used to promote healing of local wounds and infections. A substance known for its healing, soothing and anti-irritating properties. Softens skin and stimulates the formation of healthy tissue. Helps eliminate chapping and cracking, leaving skin silky, smooth and healthy-looking. Found in herbs such as comfrey, wheat and sugar beets.


Aloe Vera

- an aloe (Aloe barbadensis syn. A. vera) whose leaves furnish a gelatinous emollient extract used especially in cosmetics and skin creams; also : such an extract or a preparation composed primarily of such an extract


Allyl Caproate (aka Allyl hexanoate)

- An astringent and fragrance ingredient.


Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera)

- Improves skin hydration, is an anti-inflammatory and aids healing of cuts, grazes, burns and insect bites. Prevents immune suppression caused by UVB by repairing damage to epidermal cells.


Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) Gel

- Strong anti-inflammatory benefits. Heals and moisturizes inflamed skin. Softening, soothing and healing agent.


Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) Leaf Juice

- Improves skin hydration, is an anti-inflammatory and aids healing of cuts, grazes, burns and insect bites. Prevents immune suppression caused by UVB by repairing damage to epidermal cells.


Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) Leaf Juice Powder

- Improves skin hydration, is an anti-inflammatory and aids healing of cuts, grazes, burns and insect bites. Prevents immune suppression caused by UVB by repairing damage to epidermal cells.


Alpha Arbutin (Bearberry, Uva Ursl)

- Promotes skin lightening by blocking melanin synthesis by tyrosinase. A natural plant-based derivative of hydroquinone.


Alpha Hydroxy Acids

- Ingredients that aid exfoliation by weakening the links between cells in the outer layer of dead skin, allowing the normal shedding process to occur at a more optimum rate. By helping new cells surface, they improve skin texture, unclog pores and facilitate absorption of moisturizers. It may also help play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin, especially when incorporated into a two-step chemical peel. AHAs include lactic (from dairy products), glycolic (from sugar), malic (from apples) and citric (from citrus fruits). Dr. Gross has found that skincare products with several different kinds of acids (AHA and BHA) are the most effective and least irritating, because when many acids are combined, each can be used in a lower (i.e. milder) concentration.


Alpha Lipoic Acid

- Alpha lipoic acid, a coenzyme, is a well-known natural substance found in certain foods and also produced in the human body. Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant and is responsible for energy production in the cells. It defends against free radicals.


Althaea Officinalis (Marshmallow) Root Extract

- Anti-inflammatory, emollient. Firms and softens.


Amino Esters-1 (JPN)

- Commonly used as a stabilizer.


Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

- An antioxidant that reduces the production of free radicals and inhibits tyrosinase. Reduces fine lines and wrinkles immediately.


Aminoguanidine HCL (Aminoguanidine hydrochloride)

- Inhibits protein glycation and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE).


Aminomethyl Propanol

- Buffering ingredient.


Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer

- A synthetic polymer and film-forming agent that also serves to thicken cosmetic formulas.


Ammonium Hydroxide

- Neutralizes excess acidity.


Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate

- Lowers the surface tension of water, making the water spread more easily. It makes water "wetter" and is a foaming agent. Derived from coconut, this cleansing agent is gentle yet effective.


Aniba Rosaeodora (Rosewood) Oil

- An antimicrobial, antiseptic and antibacterial oil used for acne, dermatitis and irritated skin because of its balancing action. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, is great for older skin and sun-damaged skin because of its abilities to stimulate cells and regenerate tissues.


Andiroba Oil

- An emollient oil from the nut of the South American Andiroba tree. The oil is known both for its anti-inflammatory, moisturizing and rejuvenating properties.


Angelica (Dong quai) Extract

- Cultivated in Europe, this botanical extract has a soothing effect on the skin.


Antarcticine (Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract)

- A new bacterial strain, isolated from mud samples collected in Antarctica. In nature, this extract has the function of protecting the bacteria against harsh conditions. In skin care, it maintains its natural protective properties and promotes keratinocyte growth and fibroblast adhesion for a skin regenerating effect and enhanced wound healing.


Anthemis Nobilis (Chamomile) Flower Extract

- Aids in wound healing. Has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcigenic properties.



a substance (as beta-carotene or vitamin C) that inhibits oxidation or reactions promoted by oxygen, peroxides, or free radicals - Serve as the antidote to free radicals by neutralizing their detrimental effects on collagen in the skin. For example, visualize free radicals as tiny darts poking holes in collagen. The bad news: As we age, our bodies no longer produce sufficient antioxidants to fight free radicals. The good news: Just as there are different species of free radicals, modern science has identified different kinds of antioxidants to combat them. Dr. Gross recommends using products containing as many different kinds of antioxidants as possible


Apple Enzyme

- Lipo-animated surfactant obtained by the acylation of essential amino acids from apple juice. A natural concept that respects the skins natural barrier.


Apple Extract

- A rich source of vitamins, trace elements, amino acids and flavanoids. Malic Acid is the main acid in this ingredient. It also has astringent capabilities, reduces skin inflammation and removes corneocytes.


Applephenon (Pyrus Malus Fruit Extract)

- Vitamin C rich, it is a rich procyanidin antioxidant source, providing protective effects against oxidative stress. It also has skin lightening and refining properties.


Aqua (Distilled Water)

- Holds ingredients together.


Arbutin (Beta Arbutin, Ursine)

- Inhibits melanin production in the skin.


Arctium Lappa (Burdock) Root Extract

- Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Also provides a moisture barrier to protect skin.


Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi (Bearberry) Leaf Extract

- A natural form of Arbutin, it has anti-bacterial, antioxidant and lightening properties. Derived from the Arctostaphyllos Uva Ursi plant. Contains a natural hydroquinone sugar complex that is more stable than synthetically derived hydroquinone. Used in an encapsulated liposomal form that delivers the active ingredients directly to the cellular level. Fades hyperpigmentation spots on the skin by interfering with melanin synthesis.


Argania Spinosa Kernel Oil

- Contains sebum regulating properties due to its natural polyphenols also helps alleviate dry, irritated and itching skin.


Arginine HCL

- An amino acid that aides immune function and wound healing. Prevents wrinkles and supports firmness.


Argireline (Acetyl Hexapeptide-3)

- A chain of six amino acids. It relaxes facial tension that contributes to lines and wrinkles. Researchers think Argireline works by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters by the brain that tell these facial muscles to tense. The result is reduced wrinkles and lines.


Arnica Extract

- Credited with a wide variety of properties including anti-inflammatory, circulation stimulating, healing, antimicrobial, and anti-irritant. Promotes the removal of toxins from the skin and has a high vitamin E content that can help the skin regain elasticity, clarity and suppleness.


Arnica Montana Flower Extract

- Promotes healing and repair of tissue damage. Improves cellular respiration and has anti-inflammatory and pain-reducing properties.



- massage of the body and especially of the face with a preparation of fragrant essential oils extracted from herbs, flowers, and fruits; broadly : the use of aroma to enhance a feeling of well-being



- Name under which are designated degenerative chronic conditions of the articulation of line or juncture between the bones.



- Blood vessel which carries blood to the heart.


Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract

- Nutritent-rich source of natural growth factors.


Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

- Effective antioxidant. Assists in the synthesis of collagen. Scavenges and destroys reactive oxidizing agents and other free radicals. Provides protection against damage induced by UV radiation. Improves skin elasticity, decreases wrinkles by stimulating collagen synthesis, reduces erythema, promotes wound healing and suppresses cutaneous pigmentation.
See Vitamin C


Ascorbic Acid Polypeptide

- A reaction product of ascorbic acid and hydrolyzed protein.


Asphyxiated Skin

- Impaired exchange of oxygen in the skin. Exchanges usually caused by excessive accumulation of keratin on skin surface, thus causing a dull, lifeless complexion.


Astragalus Membranaceus Root Extract

- Contains a naturally occurring molecule proven to slow or reverse telomere shortening by activating telomerase in aged or chronically stressed cells.



- Dry, scaly skin. Partial or absolute deficiency of lipids usually due to aging or bodily disorders.



- Term used to denote bronchial asthma; a condition of the lungs in which there is widespread narrowing of airways, varying over short periods of time either spontaneously or as a result of treatment, due in varying degrees to contraction (spasm) of smooth muscle, edema of the mucosa, and mucus in the lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles; these changes are caused by the local release of spasmogens and vaso-active substances in the course of an allergic process.



- Constricting action on the skin giving a tightening effect. Many botanicals provide an astringent effect due to the presence of tannins.



- Pertaining to the lack of tone such as seen in aging skin, and pre-mature aged skin due to photo damage.


Avocado Oil

- a mono-unsaturated oil, which is dark green in colour and rich in vitamins A, D and E.


Azelaic Acid

- a natural material produced by a yeast that lives on normal skin, Malassezia furfur (also known as Pityrosporum ovale)


Asiatic Acid (Pentacyclic Triterpene)

- An anti-inflammatory free radical scavenger that repairs wounds and stimulates synthesis.


Aspalatus Linearis (Rooibos) Extract

- Rich in Vitamin C and minerals like magnesium, calcium, iron and copper. Contains high quantities of powerful flavone antioxidants that provide aggressive natural protection against free radical damage.


Avena Satlva (Oat) Kernel Extract

- From the kernels of oats. It has many beneficial properties including the ability to soothe and heal skin. It also has an immediate tightening effect.


Avobenzone (Parsol 1789)

- A chemical sunscreen that offers broad range protection against UVA rays.


Avocado Butter/Oil

- Avocado oil is rich in vitamins A, D and E and is a rich, penetrating oil.


Ayurvedic Medicine

- Refers to a form of holistic, alternative medicine developed in India. The term "ayurveda" derives from two Sanskrit words: ayu, meaning life, and veda, meaning science. Ayurvedic skincare focuses on plant extracts and essential oils.


Azadlrachta Indica (Neem) Leaf Extract

- A moisturizer rich in fatty acids and glycerides. It promotes healing, is anti-bacterial and antiseptic.


Azelalc Acid

- Treats hyperpigmentation by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Suppresses the growth of follicle bacteria and scavenges free radicals.