Glossary - C

Glossary - C


C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate

- Lubricating, emollient.


C18-36 Acid Triglyceride

- Emollient and thickening agent.



- Creates a lipolytic effect by blocking enzymes responsible for the destruction of AMPc, which is involved in triglycerides breakage. It also possesses vasodilator properties, increasing blood flow which contributes to both both the lipolytic and venotonic effect.



- Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body and is important in the function of cell turnover and regeneration of the protective lipid barrier of the skin. Calcium also regulates the production of antioxidant catalase, preventing damage to collagen, elastin and even DNA in the skin while acting as an anti-aging ingredient.


Calcium Carbonate

- Neutralizes



- Soothing, anti-inflammatory and healing ingredient. Additionally, Calendula has cleansing and astringent properties.


Calendula Oil

- an oil from the Calendula flower which is an herbaceous plant in the daisy family. Also known as Marigold flower.


Carrot Seed Oil

- a yellow or amber-colored to pale orange-brown liquid of peculiar dry-woody, somewhat root-like, earthy odor and is rich in beta-carotene and vitamins B, C, D and E.


Cocoa Butter

- a pale vegetable fat with a low melting point obtained from cacao beans. Has exceptional emollient and nourishing properties.



Cosmetic, Toiletries, Fragrances Association.An industry organization formed in order to self-regulate the industry rather than allow the FDA to step in and fill the regulatory vacuum with an abundance of forms and regulations.



Hard, tough area of skin created by friction.





Calcium Gluconate

- Used to provide extra calcium ions which can scavenge free fluorine ions before they penetrate and damage tissue. Also soothes irritated skin.


Calendula Officinalis Flower Extract

- Calms and heals with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. Powerful, flavonoid-rich antioxidant source.


Calmosensine (Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetyl Ester)

- A peptide that enhances skin comfort and relaxation by modulating the perception of unpleasant sensations.


Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract

- A natural antioxidant in the tannin family, rich in chemicals known as polyphenols, which have potent antioxidant properties. A potent antioxidant shown to neutralize free radicals generated from inflammation, but may also have benefit against DNA mutations that are associated with cancers (of the skin). May also reverse sun damage.
Contains a high content of polyphenols and methylzanthines, responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, inhibit collagenase, prevents lipid accumulation in fat cells and protects against UVB damage.


Camellia Sinensis (White Tea) Leaf Extract

- Boosts the immune function of skin cells, protects against sun damage and protects the skin from oxidative stress.


Cananga Odorata (Ylang Ylang) Flower Oil

- Oil used for its fragrance and for its sebum-regulating properties.


Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

- Plant-derived emollients that help bind water in the skin to prevent water loss.
Improves skin's barrier function, promotes penetration of active ingredients and increases moisture content of the skin.


Caprylyl Glycol

- A stabilizing agent with moisturizing properties.



- Thickener.



- Acts as an emulsion stabilizer and thickening agent.



Large circumscribed inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue similar to a furuncle, but more extensive.


Carica Papaya (Papaya) Fruit Extract

- Contains the enzymes papain and chymonpapain, which have exfoliating properties. It improves dull skin and is generally rejuvenating. Papaya also contains Vitamin A and C, which are antioxidants and benefit skin repair.



Referring to a substance that dispenses the active ingredient in a product. Effects products spreadability, stability and time release of active ingredients.



- Supports energy production in mitochondria, accelerates cell turnover. Moisturizes and exfoliates.



- A dipeptide naturally found in muscle tissue. It is a powerful antioxidant, which also promotes cell renewal, is anti-inflammatory and addresses glycation. Research demonstrates that applying carnosine to wounds accelerates healing by stimulating collagen.


Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil

- Hydrates and softens skin.



Connective tissue characterized by lack of blood vessels and is of soft consistency.



Connective tissue characterized by lack of blood vessels and is of soft consistency.


Cassia Alata Leaf Extract

- Contains high amounts of Kaempherol-3-O-Sophoroside, which helps to protect DNA by preventing UV-induced damage and supporting the natural repairing capacity of the cell.


Cassia Augustifolia Seed Polysaccharide

- An emollient, which forms a protective film on the skin. It binds water and fills up fine lines.



Breakdown of complex compounds into simpler ones.



A substance that accelerates or imitates a chemical reaction but remains unchanged while performing this task many times.


Caviar Extract

- Promotes skin rejuvenation with a chemical composition nearly identical to that of human skin. Caviar is acombination of proteins, low glycemic carbohydrates, and essential fatty acids. A main components is Arginine, the building block of proteins, which is essential in the division of cells, the healing of wounds and the production of growth hormone. It is also believed to help build collagen production.


Cell Membrane

B-Layer of lipids and protein surrounding the cell.


Cellular Surface Cells or Debris

Refers to the natural sloughing off of the stratum corneum (outer epidermis) and is expelled by all living cells.


Centella Asiatica/Gotu Kola

- Derived from the Gotu Kola plant, Centella Asiatica promotes collagen production and is known for its potent wound-healing properties. It is also a known anti-bacterial agent.



Measure of viscosity (thickness).


Cetyl Alcohol

- An emulsifier and viscosity regulator with emollient properties.



- A lipid found in the skin that is necessary for normal skin function.


Ceramide 2

- Speeds healing & rejuvenates cells.


Ceramide 3

- Topical application of Ceramide 3 has been shown to significantly increase skin water content, reduce roughness, restore detergent-damaged skin and protect healthy skin against detergent-induced dermatitis.



- Used as a cleaning, emulsifying and solubilizing surfacfant.


Cetearyl Olivate

- An emulsifier that is often blended with sorbitan olivate. Together, these emulsifiers help mix oil and water-based ingredients to give a product a luxurious, smooth feel.


Cetearyl Glucoside

- A surfactant with emulsifying properties.


Cetearyl Alcohol

- Emulsifier, emollient.



- Emulsifier and lubricant. Non-irritating and non-drying.


Cerasus Serotina (Cherry) Extract

- Possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to its components of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratroi and high levels of anthocyanins.


Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Leaf Extract

- Supports skin's natural barrier, has antioxidant, antiseptic anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.



Having or pertaining to skin that is dry, scaly, and fissured (cracked) due to the action of cold or the excess rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin's surface.



- Chemical compounds that neutralize metals such as iron, copper, lead and zinc, ­which absorb into the skin after washing with tap water or are excreted from the skin during perspiration. The Hydra-Pure Chelating Complex™, a proprietary blend of detoxifying chelators removes these impurities, reducing environmental effects leading to aging skin, acne, redness and irritation.


Cheloids (keloids)

Nodular, frequently lobulated, firm, moveable, non-encapsulated often-linear mass of hyperplastic scar tissue.



A substance formed by altering the molecular structure of a natural material or the combining of two or more elements to form a new substance.


Chondrus Crispus (Carrageenan)

- Helps to detoxify and tonify, regularly used in anti-cellulite products.



- Extract from the white and yellow heads of chamomile flowers is used as an excellent skin smoother and anti-inflammatory agent. Chamomile is used extensively in professional skin care products to calm eczema and allergic reactions. It acts as an emollient, anti-inflammatory, skin soothing agent and anti-oxidant.


Chamomilla Recutita Matricaria (Chamomile Oil/Extract)

- An extract from the flowers and finely dissected leaves of Anthemis nobilis. Reduces inflammation and soothes sensitive skin.


Cholic Acid

- Helps dry sebum and control oil, inhibits lipogenesis and emulsifies sebaceous lipids.



Moth patch, melanoderma or melasma characterized by the occurrence of extensive brown patches of irregular shape and size on the face and elsewhere.



- Soothes and heals skin. Antifungal and absorbs odor.


Chloride Phosphate

- Foaming agent.



A body within the cell nucleus containing the biological units of heredity (genes).


Chrysin (Passiflora Caerulea)

- A natural-occurring isoflavone that is extracted from the blue passion flower. It is anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant. It helps to eliminate pigmented bilirubin and iron deposits underneath the skin so it combats dark circles , swelling and puffiness.


Chronoline (Caprooyl Tetrapeptide-3)

- A peptide derived from growth factors that activates skin's natural repair function, reduces the appearance of fine lines and slows the aging process.



Symptoms of disorder lasting more than a month.



A lipid, and the most abundant steroid in animal tissues.


Chelating Agent

Substance that causes a metal ion to react with a molecule to form a chelate, which is a stable, ring-like structure.



- A naturally ocurring scent component produced from plants for example rose, geranium and lemongrass.


Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil

- Rich source of Vitamin C. Shares its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and protective properties.


Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime) Oil

- A Vitamin C-rich astringent with antioxidant, antiseptic and tonic properties. Detoxifies and helps clear oily skin.


Citric Acid

- Antioxidant, preserves the NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor).
Citric acid is a normal component of human cells that is metabolized, degraded, and eliminated from the body. Citric acid: Acts like an antioxidant and assists in regeneration of skin tissue and slowing down the aging process.


Cinnamomum Cassia (Cinnamon) Leaf Oil

- Strong antioxidant, stimulates and tones the skin.


Citrus Grandis (Pink Grapefruit) Peel Oil

- Soothes, tones, clears congested pores and balances oil content in skin. Astringent, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Rich in Vitamin C and flavonoids.


Citrus Grandis (White Grapefruit) Peel Oil

= Soothes, tones, clears congested pores and balances oil content in skin. Astringent, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Rich in Vitamin C and flavonoids.


Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Peel Extract

- Helps to inhibit tyrosinase activity and pigmentation formation. Also an anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant.


Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Peel Oil

- Inhibits melanin synthesis. Has strong antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects.


Citrus Nobilis (Mandarin Orange) Peel Oil

- Purifies and rebalances the skin. Antiseptic and tonic therapeutic properties; effective at fighting infections and removing any congestion from the skin.
Encourages growth of new skin cells and is used to help treat stretch marks, as well as acne scarring and other damage to the skin.


Citrus Paradisi (Pink Grapefruit) Peel Oil (Organic)

- Soothes, tones, clears congested pores and balances oil content in skin. Astringent, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Rich in Vitamin C and flavonoids.


Citrus Sinensis var. Sanguinea Oil (Blood Orange)

- Potent antioxidant.


Cocamidopropyl Betaine (aka CAPB)

- A combination of carefully related organic compounds produced from coconut oil and dimethylaminopropylamine.


Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine

- Surfactant, foaming agent.


Coccinia Indica Fruit Extract

- An antioxidant rich in beta carotene.



- Emollient.



- A lubricant, skin conditioner and emollient derived from coconut.


Cocoa Extract

- Cocoa extract is abundant in vitamins E and B. It also contains glycerides which deliver moisturizing lipids and fats which plump and firm, help soothe sensitivities, and protect skin from environmental damage. Also contains the anti-aging amino acids serine and alanyl-glutamine, essential in skin cell rejuvenation.


Coconut Alkanes

- Used as an emollient and solvent.


Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Fruit Juice

- Emollient and skin conditioning properties; also serves as a binder and moisturizer.


Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil

- A tropical oil with emollient and skin conditioning properties; also serves as a binder and moisturizer. It is a great oil for general moisturizing and serves as a protective layer, helping to retain the moisture in your skin. It also has soothing properties, great for those with inflamed and irritated skin, and those with skin sensitivities.


Coffea Robusta (Green Coffee) Seed Extract

- Has similar antioxidant properties to other natural antioxidants like Green Tea. Polyphenols absorb free oxygen radicals as well as helping to avert hydroxyl radicals, both of which contribute to degradation of cells in the body. Test results show it has more than double the rate of oxygen radical absorbance capability when compared to Green Tea and Grape Seed Extracts.


Colloidal Sulfur

- Reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skin’s surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne soaps and lotions, and is a major component in many acne preparations. It can cause allergic reactions in some sensitive people.


Comfrey Extract

- See Symphytum Officinale.


Commiphora Myrrha (Myrrh) Resin Extract

- Myrrh is classified as an essential oil. It balances the hydration in the skin and has a rejuvenating effect.


Copper Gluconate (Copper Peptides)

- Helps to firm, smooth, and soften skin. Enhances wound healing and stimulates production of collagen. May enhance the action of antioxidants. Have found that copper peptides may remove damaged collagen and elastin from the skin and scar tissue because they activate the skin's system responsible for those functions.


Copper PCA

- Powerful humectant that brings moisture from the atmosphere into skin.


Copper Peptide

- Used for tissue regeneration and wound healing.


Copper Tripeptide-1

- Conditions skin (see Copper Gluconate above).



Inflammation of the colon.


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- Helps to retain moisture, protects the skin and has a good tensor effect.
The protein in skin that gives it firmness, structure, keeps it taut and resilient. With age, collagen is not only produced more slowly and degenerates more quickly, but also diminishes because of sun damage, pollution, free radical damage and genetics. Depletion of collagen is the main cause of wrinkles. Fortunately, ingredients that build collagen by either promoting its production or preventing its breakdown can be both consumed in foods and applied topically via skincare products.



Any agent that may cause comedones; associated with various ingredients rated 0-3 by the Ingredient List of comedogenic Agents.



Comedo, comedos. Dilated hair follicle infundibulum filled with keratin, squamae, and sebum. Commonly termed as a blackhead.



Material connecting the two poles which offers resistance of the flow of current.


Connective tissue

Fibrous tissue that functions as the supporting framework of the body; holds muscle to the skin, muscle to bone, and bone to muscle.


Constitutive skin color

"Normal" skin color generated without exposure to radiation or hormones.


Corn Starch Modified

- Thickens formulas for smooth velvety texture.


Crataegus Monoglna (Hawthorne) Fruit

- Rich in flavonoids, catechins, triterpene saponins, amines and oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), which dilate blood vessels and supply potent antioxidants.


Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber Extract)

- It is a natural anti-inflammatory. Works as a mild astringent, yet is gently cooling and soothing and can help reduce puffiness of the skin.


Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract

- Cooling, anti-inflammatory properties. Contains phosphorus and sulphur compounds, vitamins, enzymes and mild fruit acids to purify and nourish skin.


Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Oil

- Anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and bleaching effects. Contains phosphorus and sulphur compounds, vitamins, enzymes and mild fruit acids.


Cucurblta Pepo (Pumpkin) Enzymes

- Naturally rich in antioxidant bioflavonoids and Vitamin A that assist in breaking down dead and Irregular cellular buildup.


Curcuma Longa (Turmeric) Root Extract

- Antioxidant-rich extract with healing, anti-inflammatory properties.


Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar) Gum

- An emulsifier and thickener.



- Assists in complexing fragrances. Also referred to as cycloamyloses, which make up a family of cyclic oligosaccharides, composed of 5 or more a-D-glucopyranoside units linked 1 → 4, as in amylose (a fragment of starch).


Cyclohexasiloxane (aka Cyclomethicone)

- A cyclic silicon-based polymer that is used as a hair and skin conditioner, and increases slip in products.



- Is a synthetic unmodified silicone that stays on the surface of the skin because the molecules are too big to physically enter past the upper living cells. It is used to impart a silky feel.


Cyclopentasiloxane (Cyclomethicone)

- Mainly used as a conditioner, delivery agent, lubricant and solvent.


Cymbopogon Martini (Palmarosa) Oil

- Balances hydration levels in the skin, promotes cell regeneration and fights infection.


Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Oil

- An astringent that helps to close pores and tighten wrinkles.



- An antioxidant and chelating agent.


Cyclomethicone & Dimethicone Crosspolymer

- Gives products a smooth texture and consistency without blocking pores.